27The most striking difference between the collective memory and De Fernando`s account is that he hardly speaks of Dernot in Seo Tomé, except for the consumption of foods which he considered unacceptable. This attitude became clear from the beginning of our first conversation, when he described his decision to go to Seo Tomé. He decided to go hiking, he says, because of the difficulties at home, but also because he saw migration as an adventure that offered hope for a better future: « I left as a contract worker, there were difficulties [at home], I was young, and this opportunity for migration was available. I was 18 when I left. Life was hard and I left as a contract worker. I was happy to live adventures for my future. A particularly rich source of information on witchcraft in Italy before the outbreak of the Great Renaissance Witch Hunt are the sermons of franciscan preacher Bernardino of Siena (1380-1444), who considered the subject to be one of the most pressing moral and social challenges of his time and preached so many sermons on this subject and inspired many local governments to take action. what he called « servant of the devil. »  As in most European countries, women were more often suspected of witchcraft in Italy than men.  Women were considered dangerous because of their alleged sexual instability, for example due to arousal, as well as the strengths of their menstrual blood.  In Cape Verde`s collective memory, the channelling of contract workers by the Portuguese colonial authorities after Sao Tomé is linked to slavery and suffering. This article contrasts the collective memory of the account of a former contractor, Senhor Fernando, who paints a relatively positive picture of his distant years in Séo Tomé.
Through a theoretical discussion of collective and individual memory, the article argues that the contrast between these narratives is related to the differences between the identities they reproduce. The collective narrative of submission and sacrifice is historically rooted in the struggle for Cape Verde`s independence and the moral right to a national identity of its own. Senhor Fernando`s story of how he took responsibility for his situation despite all the difficulties is based on a series of different social identities, a repertoire that allows him to establish himself as an agent and not as a victim. Historians of European witchcraft have found that the anthropological definition is difficult to apply to European witchcraft, where witches use (or could be accused) physical techniques in the same way, as some who had really tried to harm by mere thought.  European witchcraft is considered by historians and anthropologists as an ideology to explain misfortune; But this ideology has manifested itself in various ways, as described below.  43Sp-ter tells me to Senhor Fernando that it is the fault of some of his compatriots in Cape Verde for having to eat the same bad food as forced labourers from Angola and Mozambique.