Another provision in principle, which relates to human health in environmental treaties, concerns the precautionary principle. This is an obligation to take measures to prevent damage to the environment or human health, even if the scientific evidence is still uncertain. There are more than a hundred references to precautionary principles in the HEIDI treaties, but only 13 of these provisions explicitly concern human health. These provisions are generally found in contracts with the European Union in the 1990s and 2000s. Despite the confusion, people are concerned about the effects of environmental agreements. A Gallup poll conducted in 2017 showed that Americans were worried about global warming at a three-year peak. 1.77 We are aware of the magnitude of the challenges in terms of waiting and measuring environmental outcomes with respect to pollution caused by ships, particularly with regard to the vastness of the maritime areas concerned. The Department indicated that, although the United States has provided estimates of the effectiveness of MARPOL, it is not aware of other countries that have been successful in assessing the impact of MARPOL on the actual amounts of oil released into their waters, intentionally or otherwise. In this context, the government needs to be more transparent and make it clear to Canadians what progress it reasonably expects. In 2001, the United Nations Environment Programme reported that there were « more than 500 international treaties and other environmental agreements….
Nearly 60% date from 1972, the year of the Stockholm conference, until today. How we see the effectiveness of the protocols depends on what we expect from them. With little administrative or real authority, the protocols increase government concern, improve the contractual environment and increase capacity by transferring assets. But as long as sovereignty is intact, environmental protocols will not have an impact on changes in relation to public or public apathy, guarantee national measures or materialize overnight. The progress of international environmental law could be, as wiener suggests, like the turtle, slow but constant.  Go to the data at the end of this page on increasing the participation of international environmental agreements. Third, there are few institutional provisions that link the two regimes. Environmental treaties rarely deal with institutions involved in the global health system and rarely build formal bridges with them. One explanation for this low degree of institutional interaction could be explained by the increase in the number and diversity of institutions that now participate in global health policy.